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Spinal cord #cord #compression


spinal cord


any long, cylindrical, flexible structure; called also chord. chorda. and funiculus .

spermatic cord the structure extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis, comprising the pampiniform plexus, nerves, ductus deferens, testicular artery, and other vessels.

tethered cord a congenital anomaly resulting from defective closure of the neural tube; the conus medullaris is abnormally low and tethered by a short, thickened filum terminale, fibrous bands, intradural lipoma, or some other intradural abnormality. Surgical correction in infancy or early childhood is necessary to prevent progressive neurological deficit in the lower limb and bladder dysfunction.


1. pertaining to a spine.

2. pertaining to the vertebral column.

spinal cord that part of the central nervous system lodged in the spinal canal, extending from the foramen magnum to the upper part of the lumbar region. It is composed of an inner core of gray substance in which nerve cells predominate and an outer layer of white substance in which myelinated nerve fibers predominate. Called also medulla spinalis. (See Plates and see accompanying figures.)

Gross anatomy of the spinal cord. From Applegate, 2000.

Cross section of the spinal cord. From Applegate, 2000.

spi nal cord

the elongated cylindric portion of the cerebrospinal axis, or central nervous system, which is contained in the spinal or vertebral canal.

spinal cord

The thick, whitish cord of nerve tissue that extends from the medulla oblongata down through the spinal column and from which the spinal nerves branch off to various parts of the body.

spinal cord

a long, nearly cylindric structure lodged in the vertebral canal and extending from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the upper part of the lumbar region. A major component of the central nervous system, the adult cord is approximately 1 cm in diameter, with an average length of 42 to 45 cm and a weight of 30 g. The cord is an extension of the medulla oblongata of the brain that extends at the level of the first or second lumbar vertebra. The cord conducts sensory and motor impulses to and from the brain and controls many reflexes. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves originate from the cord: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. It has an inner core of gray material consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies. The cord is enclosed by three protective membranes (meninges): the dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater. Also called chorda spinalis, medulla spinalis. See also segments of spinal cord, spinal nerves.

Cross section of the spinal cord

spi nal cord

( sp ‘n l k rd ) [TA]

The elongated cylindric portion of the cerebrospinal axis, or central nervous system, which is contained in the spinal or vertebral canal.
Synonym(s): medulla spinalis.

spinal cord

SPINAL CORD: Cross-section with nerve roots on left side and examples of tracts on right side

Part of the central nervous system, the spinal cord is an ovoid column of nerve tissue 40 to 50 cm long that extends from the medulla to the second lumbar vertebra; it is within the spinal (vertebral) canal, protected by bone, and directly enclosed in the meninges. The center of the cord is gray matter in the shape of the letter H; it consists of the cell bodies and dendrites of neurons. The ventral (anterior) horns of the gray matter contain cell bodies of somatic motor neurons; the dorsal (posterior) horns contain cell bodies of interneurons. The white matter is arranged in tracts around the gray matter. It consists of myelinated axons that transmit impulses to and from the brain, or between levels of gray matter in the spinal cord, or that will leave the cord as part of peripheral nerves. The spinal cord is the pathway for sensory impulses to the brain and motor impulses from the brain; it also mediates stretch reflexes and the defecation and urination reflexes. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord and innervate the trunk and limbs. See: illustration

spinal cord

The downward continuation of the BRAINSTEM that lies within a canal in the spine (VERTEBRAL COLUMN ). The cord is a cylinder of nerve tissue about 45 cm long containing bundles of nerve fibre tracts running up and down, to and from the brain. These tracts form SYNAPSES with the 62 spinal nerves that emerge in pairs from either side of the cord, between adjacent vertebrae, and carry nerve impulses to and from all parts of the trunk and the limbs.

spinal cord

a cable-like nervous structure in vertebrates, enclosed in the backbone and extending the full length of the body behind the head. Pairs of spinal nerves leave the cord in each segment of the body The cord forms part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and contains many NERVE CELLS and bundles of fibres, many associated with simple REFLEX ARCS. others with the brain. Coordination of movement of various parts of the body is brought about in the spinal cord.

Spinal cord

Elongated nerve bundles that lie in the vertebral canal and from which the spinal nerves emerge.

Section of the spinal cord.

Figure 1: Efferent nerve pathways from the brainstem and spinal cord. Shown on the right: somatic, to skeletal muscles. Shown on the left: autonomic. B brain stem, C cervical, T thoracic, L lumbar, S sacral segments of the spinal cord. (Red shaded regions are those with no autonomic outflow.)

spinal cord

the part of the central nervous system that extends, in continuity with the brain, from the base of the skull down the vertebral (spinal) canal as far as the top of the second lumbar vertebra. Surrounded by the membranous tube of the meninges (in continuity with the coverings of the brain) and bathed within this by cerebrospinal fluid . Consists of nerve cells (grey matter) and nerve tracts (white matter). Anterior (efferent) and posterior (afferent) spinal nerve roots leave and enter through the intervertebral foramina, linking it to the peripheral nervous system. See also vertebral column ; Figure 1.

spi nal cord

( sp ‘n l k rd ) [TA]

The elongated cylindric portion of the cerebrospinal axis, or central nervous system, which is contained in the spinal or vertebral canal.
Synonym(s): medulla spinalis.

spinal cord

that part of the central nervous system lodged in the spinal canal, extending from the foramen magnum to a point in the lumbar or sacral vertebrae, depending on the species.

spinal cord abscess

spinal cord atrophy

diminution in mass of the entire cord, is usually the hallmark of undernutrition or old age, or both.

spinal cord compression

may be gradual due to space-occupying lesion of vertebral canal, such as abscess, callus of a fracture, or a tumor, or acute due to fracture dislocation or thrombosis. In general, clinical signs include paresis or paralysis, but depending on the level of the spinal cord involved and the type of lesion present there may also be urinary incontinence, loss of sensation, Horner’s syndrome, and in acute lesions, spinal shock.

spinal cord degeneration

spinal cord hemorrhage

spinal cord hypoplasia

usually segmental, especially in the lumbar area.

spinal cord local ischemia

caused by embolus of a spinal artery; has the same effect as traumatic injury (see below).

spinal cord tracts

more or less distinct bundles of fibers within the white matter of the spinal cord. There are three funiculi on each side of the cord dorsal, lateral and ventral; subdivisions within the funiculi include eleven major tracts gracile and cuneate fasciculi, lateral and ventral corticospinal tracts, rubrospinal tract, dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts, lateral and ventral spinothalamic tracts, elementary apparatus fibers, ventral corticospinal tract, vestibulospinal tract.

spinal cord traumatic injury

fracture or dislocation of one or more vertebrae; causes a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis in the area supplied with nerves from the injured segment and spastic paralysis in the parts supplied by the cord segments caudal to the injury.

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Spinal Cord Compression – Neurologic Disorders – Merck Manuals Professional Edition #cord #compression


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Spinal Cord Compression

Acute compression develops within minutes to hours. It is often due to trauma (eg, vertebral crush fracture with displacement of fracture fragments, acute disk herniation. metastatic tumor, severe bone or ligamentous injury causing hematoma, vertebral subluxation or dislocation). It is occasionally due to abscess and rarely due to spontaneous epidural hematoma. Acute compression may follow subacute and chronic compression, especially if the cause is abscess or tumor.

Subacute compression develops over days to weeks. It is usually caused by a metastatic extramedullary tumor, a subdural or an epidural abscess or hematoma, or a cervical or, rarely, thoracic herniated disk.

Chronic compression develops over months to years. It is commonly caused by bony protrusions into the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal canal (eg, due to osteophytes or spondylosis, especially when the spinal canal is narrow, as occurs in spinal stenosis ). Compression can be aggravated by a herniated disk and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. Less common causes include arteriovenous malformations and slow-growing extramedullary tumors.

Lesions that compress the spinal cord may also compress nerve roots or, rarely, occlude the spinal cord’s blood supply, causing spinal cord infarction .

Symptoms and Signs

Acute or advanced spinal cord compression causes segmental deficits, paraparesis or quadriparesis, hyporeflexia (when acute) followed by hyperreflexia, extensor plantar responses, loss of sphincter tone (with bowel and bladder dysfunction), and sensory deficits. Subacute or chronic compression may begin with local back pain, often radiating down the distribution of a nerve root (radicular pain), and sometimes hyperreflexia and loss of sensation. Sensory loss may begin in the sacral segments. Complete loss of function may follow suddenly and unpredictably, possibly resulting from secondary spinal cord infarction.

Spinal percussion tenderness is prominent if the cause is metastatic carcinoma, abscess, or hematoma.

Intramedullary lesions tend to cause poorly localized burning pain rather than radicular pain and to spare sensation in sacral dermatomes. These lesions usually result in spastic paresis.


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Banking Baby Cord Blood: Should You Do It? #cord #blood, #public #blood #cord #bank, #private #blood #cord #bank, #umbilical #cord


Should You Bank Your Baby’s Cord Blood?

There are so many things to think about when you have a child. One of them is the blood from your baby’s umbilical cord (which connects the baby to the mother while in the womb). It used to be thrown away at birth, but now, many parents store the blood for the future health of their child. Should you do it?

What Can It Be Used For?

The umbilical cord fluid is loaded with stem cells. They can treat cancer. blood diseases like anemia. and some immune system disorders. which disrupt your body’s ability to defend itself.

The fluid is easy to collect and has 10 times more stem cells than those collected from bone marrow.

Stem cells from cord blood rarely carry any infectious diseases and are half as likely to be rejected as adult stem cells.

How Do You Get It?

If you want the blood stored, after the birth, the doctor clamps the umbilical cord in two places, about 10 inches apart, and cuts the cord, separating mother from baby. Then she inserts a needle and collects at least 40 milliliters of blood from the cord. The blood is sealed in a bag and sent to a lab or cord blood bank for testing and storage. The process only takes a few minutes and is painless for mother and baby .

The cord blood bank may also send tubes so that the mother’s blood can be taken, too. If so, the banking kit will have instructions along with blood collection tubes.

Where Is It stored?

There are three options:

Public cord banks don’t charge anything for storage. Any donation made is available for anyone who needs it. The bank may also use the donated cord blood for research.

Private (commercial) cord banks will store the donated blood for use by the donor and family members only. They can be expensive. These banks charge a fee for processing and an annual fee for storage.

Direct-donation banks are a combination of public and private banks. They store cord blood for public use. But they also accept donations reserved for families. No fee is charged.


Should You Bank Your Baby’s Cord Blood?

It depends on who you ask. Although commercial cord blood banks often bill their services as “biological insurance” against future diseases, the blood doesn’t often get used. One study says the chance that a child will use their cord blood over their lifetime is between 1 in 400 and 1 in 200,000.

The stored blood can’t always be used, even if the person develops a disease later on, because if the disease was caused by a genetic mutation, it would also be in the stem cells. Current research says the stored blood may only be useful for 15 years.

The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics don’t recommend routine cord blood storage. The groups say private banks should only be used when there’s a sibling with a medical condition who could benefit from the stem cells. Families are encouraged to donate stem cells to a public bank to help others.

If you do decide to bank your baby’s cord blood, there’s one more thing to keep in mind: It’s best not to make it a last-minute decision. You should coordinate with the bank before your baby is born so nothing is left to chance.

WebMD Medical Reference Reviewed by Traci C. Johnson, MD on January 23, 2017


The Journal of Perinatal Education. “Umbilical Cord Blood: Information for Childbirth Educators.”

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists: “Committee Opinion: Umbilical Cord Blood Banking.”

Indiana Hemophilia Thrombosis Center: “Procedure for Collecting, Storing and Shipping the Cord Blood Sample.” “What is cord blood banking — and is it better to use a public or private facility?”

Pediatrics. “Policy statement: Cord blood banking for potential future transplantation.”

© 2017 WebMD, LLC. All rights reserved.

Cord Blood Banking – American Pregnancy Association #umbilical #cord #banking #cost


Cord Blood Banking

Cord Blood Banking

Cord blood is the blood that remains in the umbilical cord and placenta following birth. This blood is usually discarded. However, cord blood banking utilizes facilities to store and preserve a baby’s cord blood. If you are considering storing your baby s cord blood, make sure to use a cord blood bank accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), like Viacord.

For information about cord blood banking you may call Viacord toll-free at 1-866-384-0476 .

Why would I store my baby’s blood in a cord blood bank?

The cord blood of your baby is an abundant source of stem cells that are genetically related to your baby and your family. Stem cells are dominant cells in the way they contribute to the development of all tissues, organs, and systems in the body.

Stem cells are able to transform into other types of cells in the body to create new growth and development. They are also the building blocks of the immune system. The transformation of these cells provides doctors with a way to treat leukemia and some inherited health disorders.

The stem cells from your baby’s cord blood may also be effective in treating certain diseases or conditions of a parent or sibling. Cord blood stem cells have similar ability to treat disease as bone marrow but with significantly less rejection.

Banking a baby’s blood and stem cells in a cord blood bank is a type of insurance. Ideally, you would not need to access your baby’s stem cells in order to address a medical concern. However, using a cord blood bank can provide peace of mind in knowing that you have a valuable resource if you need it.

How is cord blood collected?

The cord blood collection process is simple, safe, and painless. The process usually takes no longer than five minutes. Cord blood collection does not interfere with delivery and is possible with both vaginal and cesarean deliveries.

Your health care provider will use either the syringe method or bag method for collecting the blood:

  • Syringe method. a syringe is used to draw blood from the umbilical cord shortly after the umbilical cord has been cut. The process is similar to drawing blood for a regular blood test .
  • Bag method. the umbilical cord is elevated to drain the blood into a bag.

The syringe or bag should be pre-labeled with a unique number that identifies your baby. Cord blood may only be collected during the first 15 minutes following the birth and should be processed by the laboratory within 48 hours of collection.

What happens to the cord blood once it has been collected?

The baby’s cord blood will be processed and stored in a laboratory facility, often referred to as a blood bank. The cord blood should be processed and stored in a facility that is accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) for the purpose of handling stem cells.

What are the health risks to the mother or to the baby?

There are no health risks related to cord blood collection. Cord blood is retrieved from the umbilical cord after it has been cut, thus preventing any pain, discomfort, or harm. This process is completely safe.

How much does cord blood banking cost?

There are usually two fees involved in cord blood banking. The first is the initial fee that covers enrollment, collection, and storage for at least the first year. The second is an annual storage fee. Some facilities vary the initial fee based upon the length of a predetermined period of storage.

Depending on the predetermined period of storage, the initial fee can range from $900 to $2100. Annual storage fees after the initial storage fee are approximately $100. It is common for storage facilities to offer prepaid plans at a discount and payment plans to help make the initial storage a more attractive option for you and your family.

What if I do not want to store the cord blood?

Your baby’s cord blood could be a valuable resource for another family. From foundations to non-profit blood banks and medical facilities, there are numerous locations that will collect, process, and use the stem cells from your baby’s cord blood to treat other people.

Just like other blood donations, there is no cost to the donor of cord blood. If you do not choose to store your baby’s blood, please consider donating it. Your donation could make a difference in someone else’s life.

Click here to find a public cord blood donation site in your area.

Where can I learn more about cord blood banking and arrange for cord blood banking services?

There are several cord blood banks that are accredited by the American Association of Blood Banks. Most offer information on cord blood banking and provide private cord blood banking services. With a little research, you should be able to locate a credible cord blood bank online.

Viacord is accredited by the AABB, and they are available to provide immediate answers to your questions. They can be reached toll-free at 1-866-384-0476 .

Last updated: September 2, 2016 at 3:01 am

Compiled using information from the following sources:

Umbilical cord blood collection – MyCells – Cord blood storage bank – Stem Cells #bank #of #stem #cells, #stem #cells, #stem #the #cellular, #stem #cells, #stem #cell #storage #bank, #milk #teeth, #cord #blood, #cord #blood, #mesenchymal, #umbilical #cord #tissue


Collecting the blood from the umbilical cord is a simple, painless procedure done after childbirth, whether it is normal or caesarean section, after the obstetrician or midwife straps and cuts the umbilical cord and delivers the baby.

The collection bag used, is specific for the collection of cord blood and contains appropriate antifreeze liquid in the right quantity. It also has two separate needles. so the collection of a larger amount of UCB can be easily realized.

The process of collecting lasts no more than three to five minutes. It is painless, simple and does not affect the baby or the mother.

The sample that is collected can be left at room temperature up to 48-72 hours without any negative impact on the functionality and viability of the stem cells it contains.

The international standards, followed by my cells. state that the laboratory should start the cryopreservation process not later than 72 hours from the time of collection.

The obstetrician or midwife will clean thoroughly and disinfect an area of the umbilical cord and puncture the umbilical vein with the needle of the special collection bag, collecting the maximum possible amount of blood. This blood belongs to the baby and contains its own stem cells!

Once collected, the bag with the blood is placed in the collection kit and maintained through the special transport package, at room temperature until transferred to the laboratory.